howtouselinux

Linux Commands Cheat Sheet

Table of Contents

In this Linux command line cheat sheet, we will learn:

  • Basic Linux Commands
  • File management user management Linux Commands
  • Programing Linux Commands
  • Job management Filesystem management Linux commands
  • Process management Linux Commands
  • Shortcuts
  • network
  • System Info
  • Searching
  • File Permission

Basic Linux Commands

  • cat – Joins and displays files
  • cp – Copies files
  • cpio – Creates an archive, restores files from an archive, or copies a directory hierarchy
  • cut – Selects characters or fields from input lines
  • diff – Displays the differences between two text files
  • emacs Editor
  • expand – Converts TABs to SPACEs
  • find – Finds files based on criteria
  • grep – searches for a pattern in files
  • gzip – Compresses or decompresses files
  • head – Displays the beginning of a file
  • join – Joins lines from two files based on a common field
  • less – Displays text files, one screen at a time
  • ln – Makes a link to a file
  • ls – Displays information about one or more files
  • man – Displays documentation for utilities
  • mkdir – Creates a directory
  • mv – Renames or moves a file
  • nl – Numbers lines from a file
  • od – Dumps the contents of a file
  • paste – Joins corresponding lines from files
  • rm – Removes a file (deletes a link)
  • sed – Edits a file noninteractively
  • sort – Sorts and/or merges files
  • split – Divides a file into sections
  • tail – Displays the last part (tail) of a file
  • tar – Stores or retrieves files to/from an archive file
  • touch – Creates a file or changes a file’s access and/or modification time
  • uniq – Displays unique lines from a file
  • vim Editor
  • wc – Displays the number of lines, words, and bytes in one or more files

File management user management Linx Commands

  • cd – Changes to another working directory
  • chgrp – Changes the group associated with a file
  • chmod – Changes the access mode (permissions) of a file
  • chown – Changes the owner of a file and/or the group the file is associated with
  • date – Displays or sets the system time and date
  • df – Displays disk space usage
  • dmesg – Displays kernel messages
  • du – Displays information on disk usage by directory hierarchy and/or file
  • finger – Displays information about users
  • kill – Terminates a process by PID
  • killall – Terminates a process by name
  • nice – Changes the priority of a command
  • nohup – Runs a command that keeps running after you log out
  • ps – Displays process status
  • renice – Changes the priority of a process
  • sleep – Creates a process that sleeps for a specified interval
  • stat – Displays information about files
  • stty – Displays or sets terminal parameters
  • sysctl – Displays and alters kernel variables at runtime
  • top Dynamically displays process status
  • umask Specifies the file-creation permissions mask
  • w Displays information about local system users
  • which Shows where in PATH a utility is located
  • who Displays information about logged-in users

Programing Linux Commands

  • configure – Configures source code automatically
  • gawk – Searches for and processes patterns in a file
  • gcc – Compiles C and C++ programs
  • make – Keeps a set of programs current
  • mawk – Searches for and processes patterns in a file
  • perl – Scripting language
  • python – Programming language

Job management Filesystem management Linux commands

  • at – Executes commands at a specified time
  • cal – Displays a calendar
  • crontab – Maintains crontab files
  • echo – Displays a message
  • expr – Evaluates an expression
  • fsck – Checks and repairs a filesystem
  • mkfs – Creates a filesystem on a device
  • screen – Manages several textual windows
  • tee – Copies standard input to standard output and one or more files
  • test – Evaluates an expression
  • tr – Replaces specified characters
  • tty – Displays the terminal pathname

Process management Linux Commands

  • bg – To send a process to the background
  • fg – To run a stopped process in the foreground
  • top – Details on all Active Processes
  • ps – Give the status of processes running for a user
  • ps PID – Gives the status of a particular process
  • pidof – Gives the Process ID (PID) of a process
  • kill PID – Kills a process
  • nice – Starts a process with a given priority
  • renice – Changes priority of an already running process
  • df – Gives free hard disk space on your system
  • free – Gives free RAM on your system

Shortcuts

  • Ctrl+C – halts the current command
  • Ctrl+Z – stops the current command, resume with
  • fg in the foreground or bg in the background
  • Ctrl+D – log out of current session, similar to exit
  • Ctrl+W – erases one word in the current line
  • Ctrl+U – erases the whole line
  • Ctrl+R – type to bring up a recent command
  • !! – repeats the last command
  • exit – log out of current session

Network

  • ping host – ping host and output results
  • whois domain – get whois information for domain
  • dig domain – get DNS information for domain
  • dig -x host – reverse lookup host
  • wget file – download file
  • wget -c file – continue a stopped download
  • ./ – curret directory right now
  • ../ – previous directory
  • ~ – the users home directory
  • | – pipe the output of one command into another
  • > – use command on the following file (overwrite)
  • >> – use command on following file (appends)

Compression

  • tar cf file.tar files – create a tar named file.tar containing files
  • tar xf file.tar – extract the files from file.tar
  • tar czf file.tar.gz files – create a tar with Gzip compression
  • tar xzf file.tar.gz – extract a tar using Gzip
  • tar cjf file.tar.bz2 – create a tar with Bzip2 compression
  • tar xjf file.tar.bz2 – extract a tar using Bzip2
  • gzip file – compresses file and renames it to file.gz
  • gzip -d file.gz – decompresses file.gz back to file

System Info

  • date – show the current date and time
  • cal – show this month’s calendar
  • uptime – show current uptime
  • w – display who is online
  • whoami – who you are logged in as
  • finger user – display information about user
  • uname -a – show kernel information
  • cat /proc/cpuinfo – cpu information
  • cat /proc/meminfo – memory information
  • man command – show the manual for command
  • df – show disk usage
  • du – show directory space usage
  • free – show memory and swap usage
  • whereis app – show possible locations of app
  • which app – show which app will be run by default

Searching

  • grep pattern files – search for pattern in files
  • grep -r pattern dir – search recursively for pattern in dir
  • command | grep pattern – search for pattern in the output of command
  • locate file – find all instances of file
  • find /dir/ -name name* Find files starting with name in dir
  • find /dir/ -user name Find files owned by name in dir
  • find /dir/ -mmin num Find files modifed less than num minutes ago in dir

File Permissions

  • chmod octal file – change the permissions of file to octal, which can be found separately for user, group, and world by adding
  • 4 – read (r)
  • 2 – write (w)
  • 1 – execute (x)

IO Redirection

  • cmd < file Input of cmd from file
  • cmd1 <(c
    md2) Output of cmd2 as file input to cmd1
  • cmd > file Standard output (stdout) of cmd to file
  • cmd > /dev/null Discard stdout of cmd
  • cmd >> file Append stdout to file
  • cmd 2> file Error output (stderr) of cmd to file
  • cmd 1>&2 stdout to same place as stderr
  • cmd 2>&1 stderr to same place as stdout
  • cmd &> file Every output of cmd to file

Linux Troubleshooting Guide:

Linux Learning Guide:

Welcome to howtouselinux.com!

Our website is dedicated to providing comprehensive information on using Linux.

We hope you find our site helpful and informative, and we welcome your feedback and suggestions for future content.

Learn More

Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn