Linux Commands Cheat Sheet

Updated: Sep 5

In this Linux command line cheat sheet, we will learn:


Basic Linux Commands

  • cat Joins and displays files

  • cp Copies files

  • cpio Creates an archive, restores files from an archive, or copies a directory hierarchy

  • cut Selects characters or fields from input lines

  • diff Displays the differences between two text files

  • emacs Editor

  • expand Converts TABs to SPACEs

  • find Finds files based on criteria

  • grep searches for a pattern in files

  • gzip Compresses or decompresses files

  • head Displays the beginning of a file

  • join Joins lines from two files based on a common field

  • less Displays text files, one screen at a time

  • ln Makes a link to a file

  • ls Displays information about one or more files

  • man Displays documentation for utilities

  • mkdir Creates a directory

  • mv Renames or moves a file

  • nl Numbers lines from a file

  • od Dumps the contents of a file

  • paste Joins corresponding lines from files

  • rm Removes a file (deletes a link)

  • sed Edits a file noninteractively

  • sort Sorts and/or merges files

  • split Divides a file into sections

  • tail Displays the last part (tail) of a file

  • tar Stores or retrieves files to/from an archive file

  • touch Creates a file or changes a file’s access and/or modification time

  • uniq Displays unique lines from a file

  • vim Editor

  • wc Displays the number of lines, words, and bytes in one or more files



File management user management Linx Commands

  • cd Changes to another working directory

  • chgrp Changes the group associated with a file

  • chmod Changes the access mode (permissions) of a file

  • chown Changes the owner of a file and/or the group the file is associated with

  • date Displays or sets the system time and date

  • df Displays disk space usage

  • dmesg Displays kernel messages

  • du Displays information on disk usage by directory hierarchy and/or file

  • finger Displays information about users

  • kill Terminates a process by PID

  • killall Terminates a process by name

  • nice Changes the priority of a command

  • nohup Runs a command that keeps running after you log out

  • ps Displays process status

  • renice Changes the priority of a process

  • sleep Creates a process that sleeps for a specified interval

  • stat Displays information about files

  • stty Displays or sets terminal parameters

  • sysctl Displays and alters kernel variables at runtime

  • top Dynamically displays process status

  • umask Specifies the file-creation permissions mask

  • w Displays information about local system users

  • which Shows where in PATH a utility is located

  • who Displays information about logged-in users


Programing Linux Commands

  • configure Configures source code automatically

  • gawk Searches for and processes patterns in a file

  • gcc Compiles C and C++ programs

  • make Keeps a set of programs current

  • mawk Searches for and processes patterns in a file

  • perl Scripting language

  • python Programming language



Job management Filesystem management Linux commands

  • at Executes commands at a specified time

  • cal Displays a calendar

  • crontab Maintains crontab files

  • echo Displays a message

  • expr Evaluates an expression

  • fsck Checks and repairs a filesystem

  • mkfs Creates a filesystem on a device

  • screen Manages several textual windows

  • tee Copies standard input to standard output and one or more files

  • test Evaluates an expression

  • tr Replaces specified characters

  • tty Displays the terminal pathname



Process management Linux Commands

  • bg To send a process to the background

  • fg To run a stopped process in the foreground

  • top Details on all Active Processes

  • ps Give the status of processes running for a user

  • ps PID Gives the status of a particular process

  • pidof Gives the Process ID (PID) of a process

  • kill PID Kills a process

  • nice Starts a process with a given priority

  • renice Changes priority of an already running process

  • df Gives free hard disk space on your system

  • free Gives free RAM on your system



Shortcuts

  • Ctrl+C – halts the current command

  • Ctrl+Z – stops the current command, resume with

  • fg in the foreground or bg in the background

  • Ctrl+D – log out of current session, similar to exit

  • Ctrl+W – erases one word in the current line

  • Ctrl+U – erases the whole line

  • Ctrl+R – type to bring up a recent command

  • !! - repeats the last command

  • exit – log out of current session



Network

  • ping host – ping host and output results

  • whois domain – get whois information for domain

  • dig domain – get DNS information for domain

  • dig -x host – reverse lookup host

  • wget file – download file

  • wget -c file – continue a stopped download


  • ./ - curret directory right now

  • ../ - previous directory

  • ~ - the users home directory

  • | - pipe the output of one command into another

  • > - use command on the following file (overwrite)

  • >> - use command on following file (appends)

Compression

  • tar cf file.tar files – create a tar named file.tar containing files

  • tar xf file.tar – extract the files from file.tar

  • tar czf file.tar.gz files – create a tar with Gzip compression

  • tar xzf file.tar.gz – extract a tar using Gzip

  • tar cjf file.tar.bz2 – create a tar with Bzip2 compression

  • tar xjf file.tar.bz2 – extract a tar using Bzip2

  • gzip file – compresses file and renames it to file.gz

  • gzip -d file.gz – decompresses file.gz back to file



System Info

  • date – show the current date and time

  • cal – show this month's calendar

  • uptime – show current uptime

  • w – display who is online

  • whoami – who you are logged in as

  • finger user – display information about user

  • uname -a – show kernel information

  • cat /proc/cpuinfo – cpu information

  • cat /proc/meminfo – memory information

  • man command – show the manual for command

  • df – show disk usage

  • du – show directory space usage

  • free – show memory and swap usage

  • whereis app – show possible locations of app

  • which app – show which app will be run by default



Searching

  • grep pattern files – search for pattern in files

  • grep -r pattern dir – search recursively for pattern in dir

  • command | grep pattern – search for pattern in the output of command

  • locate file – find all instances of file

  • find /dir/ -name name* Find files starting with name in dir

  • find /dir/ -user name Find files owned by name in dir

  • find /dir/ -mmin num Find files modifed less than num minutes ago in dir

File Permissions

  • chmod octal file – change the permissions of file to octal, which can be found separately for user, group, and world by adding

  • 4 – read (r)

  • 2 – write (w)

  • 1 – execute (x)


IO Redirection

  • cmd < file Input of cmd from file

  • cmd1 <(cmd2) Output of cmd2 as file input to cmd1

  • cmd > file Standard output (stdout) of cmd to file

  • cmd > /dev/null Discard stdout of cmd

  • cmd >> file Append stdout to file

  • cmd 2> file Error output (stderr) of cmd to file

  • cmd 1>&2 stdout to same place as stderr

  • cmd 2>&1 stderr to same place as stdout

  • cmd &> file Every output of cmd to file


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