Linux commands are the most powerful tools for Linux tasks. We collect the most useful Linux commands to help Linux beginners start.
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ls command - lists contents of current working directory
cd command - change directory
touch command - create new file or directory
rm command - remove file or directory
mkdir command - create new directory
head command - print first few lines of a file
tail command - print last few lines of a file
echo command - print string
cat command - print contents of a file
cp command - copy file or directory
mv command - move file or directory
Use the df command to see the available disk space in each of the partitions in your system. You can just type in df in the command line and you can see each mounted partition and their used/available space in % and in KBs. If you want it shown in megabytes, you can use the command “df -m”.
[howtouselinux@test ~]$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/wbx_vg-root 51G 2.3G 49G 5% / devtmpfs 189G 0 189G 0% /dev tmpfs 189G 637M 189G 1% /dev/shm tmpfs 189G 163M 189G 1% /run tmpfs 189G 0 189G 0% /sys/fs/cgroup /dev/sda1 2.0G 135M 1.9G 7% /boot
Use du to know the disk usage of a file in your system. If you want to know the disk usage for a particular folder or file in Linux, you can type in the command du and the name of the folder or file.
[howtouselinux@test ~]$ du -sh /tmp/tcpdump_02791648.pcap 16M /tmp/tcpdump_02791648.pcap
Use hostname to know your name on your host or network.
[howtouselinux@test ~]$ hostname test
Use uname to show the information about the system your Linux distro is running. Using the command “uname -a” prints most of the information about the system. This prints the kernel release date, version, processor type, etc.
$ uname -a Linux test 3.10.0-957.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Thu Oct 4 20:48:51 UTC 2018 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
Use ping to check your connection to a server.
$ ping 192.168.1.11 PING 192.168.1.11 (192.168.1.11) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 192.168.1.11: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.025 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.1.11: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.025 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.1.11: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.032 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.1.11: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.025 ms
$ grep hello test hello world
display who is logged in
$ who tocao pts/0 2020-11-09 09:51 (10.79.113.126)
report a snapshot of the current processes. List All Processes in Current Shell. If you run ps command without any arguments, it displays processes for the current.
$ ps PID TTY TIME CMD 17765 pts/0 00:00:00 bash 23323 pts/0 00:00:00 ps
kill command is usually used to kill a process. Internally it sends a signal, and depending on what you want to do, there are different signals that you can send using this tool.
history command is used to view the previously executed command
$ history 1 df -h 2 sudo sudo su - 3 hostname 4 man hostname 5 more /etc/hosts 6 systemctl status network 7 sudo sudo su - 8 exit